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Cannabis 101

Gastric Interactions

In 2016, a team of researchers working for Zynerba Pharmaceuticals, a healthcare company creating cannabinoid-based medications primarily for children with neuropsychiatric conditions, set out to uncover why an increasing number of CBD-only patients were reporting minor negative side effects akin to those experienced by THC users. They decided to study what happens to CBD while […]

Drug Testing With CBD

All CBD products regulated in the US must have a THC percentage below 0.3%, with anything testing above being considered a THC product. The same rule applies to hemp-derived CBD; not only do the extracted products have to be below 0.3% THC, but the hemp plant itself must have less than 0.3% THC production in […]

Drug Testing

A marijuana drug test will test for THC and its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). When taking drug tests, the ability to pass or fail depends on numerous factors, including what type of drug test is being administered, food intake before initial consumption, water intake after consumption, fat content in the consumer, type and […]

Dangerous Synthetic Cannabinoids

Certain synthetic cannabinoids fall under a designer drug category, often sprayed onto other plant matter to be consumed through smoking. These are very chemically different from the safe synthetic cannabinoids replicating THC and CBD, among others. Often marketed as an herbal incense or “herbal smoking blend,” and even taking the dangerous name of Synthetic Marijuana, […]

Safe Synthetic Cannabinoids

Synthetic versions of THC and CBD, such as dronabinol and Epidiolex, are perfectly healthy and safe synthetic cannabinoids. These syntheses are exact copies of THC and CBD, and so behave in the same way when binding to CB1 and CB2 receptors. They are not chemically identical to other, much more dangerous synthetic cannabinoids, such as […]

Other Phytocannabinoid-Producing Plants

Though widely regarded as unique to cannabis, there are a few other plants capable of producing their own phytocannabinoids that likewise interact with our endocannabinoid system. Many of these chemicals are technically lipophilic alkamides, but their interactions with cannabinoid receptors make them qualify as phytocannabinoids themselves. Hops Most surprisingly, a species of hops known as […]

Unstudied Phytocannabinoids

Though detected in cannabis, dozens of phytocannabinoids have not yet been studied for their effects or interactions in the endocannabinoid system. These include cannabichromenenic acid (CBCa), cannabichromanone (CBCN), cannabichromevarin (CBCV) a propyl analogue of CBC, cannabinodiol (CBDL), cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVa) a propyl analogue of CBDa, cannabielsoin (CBE) an artifact derived from CBD, cannabigerol monomethyl ether […]

CBN

Cannabinol (CBN) is a nonenzymatic breakdown product of THC and THCV exposed to UV light and oxygen, and is commonly found in aged cannabis. Discovered in 1940 by Roger Adams, it is a partially psychotropic, psychoactive phytocannabinoid typically used as an indicator of how fresh a dried bud is, but is also known to be […]

CBC

Cannabichromene (CBC) is a psychoactive non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid. It was discovered in 1964 and is the decarboxylated form of CBCa found in heated juvenile cannabis. As the plant matures, the CBC levels lower, but GW Pharmaceutical was able to develop a mutated Cannabis sativa variety that has difficulties producing THC and CBD, allowing the CBC to […]

CBDV

Cannabidivarin (CBDV)  is a psychoactive, non-psychotropic decarboxylated propyl analogue phytocannabinoid of CBD found in heated cannabis. It was discovered in 1964 as a homologue to CBD, and is not a CB1 agonist but appears to activate and desensitize the vanilloid TRPV1. Preliminary research suggests CBDV is what helps differentiate strains bred specifically for treating seizure […]

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